Libya: Reconstructing A State
The Arab Spring set Northern Africa and the Levant on fire. Oppositional groups and disadvantaged tribes seized the moment and took up arms against the government. In the following months a civil war between the Gaddafi-regime and the revolutionary movement, in particular the National Liberation Army (NLA) broke out.
When the humanitarian situation seemed to worsen, a NATO coalition led by the USA and backed by UNSC-resolution 1973 (S/RES/1973) intervened into Libya from March 2011 onwards in order to protect the civil population. Together, NLA and many other rebel groups were successful in their fight which finally led to an overthrow of the Gaddafi-regime in Libya. But the war continued.
In the years thereafter, the political and military situation has become more and more unclear, since rival parliaments are fighting over the power to rule the country. And this is only one of many problems. Rebuilding the state’s monopoly on the use of force is of great importance since it must guarantee public safety. However, all existing security forces of the former Gaddafi-regime were involved in the oppression of the civil society. The constitution of a non-corrupt and especially independent security branch while using these old networks is nearly impossible, therefore a setup of new forces is needed. The question that follows is: ‘Where will these forces come from?’ Furthermore, in the power gap inherited by the civil war, different tribes and social groups, who have always played an important role, aim to acquire more political power. The moment the authoritarian rule broke off, these became even more important as one of the few remaining seemingly legitimate informal institutions.
Since 2011, a huge proliferation of arms took place; therefore, it is unlikely that tribes will lay down their arms voluntarily or accept another tribe gaining too much political influence since there is the threat of being disadvantaged in the future.
Can successful reconstruction and peacebuilding efforts be undertaken in a post-conflict region with so many particular actors who all have their own agendas?
Bart van Donselaar
Bart van Donselaar is 18 years old and will be one of your chairs of the Security Council at GrunnMUN 2020.
This conference will mark his 19th MUN session and his 11th time chairing. He is currently studying International Relations & International Organization, and Minorities & Multilingualism at the University of Groningen, coping mostly by watching a lot of cat videos and listening to Cambodian rock music.
After his first MUN conference, he has participated as a delegate, chair or secretariat member at many other conferences. Last year, he attended GrunnMUN and TEIMUN, which was more than enough motivation to enthusiastically join GrunnMUN as a chair.
Risyad Natadiningrat is currently a first year student studying International and European Law in the University of Groningen.
The world of international law and relations caught his attention 4 years ago when he joined his first MUN which is H!MUN 2015. His scope of interest in MUN includes economy, development programme and most importantly, security matters which began in Indonesia Model United Nations 2017, UNSC.
Today, reaching his 5th year in MUN, he has joined various national and international MUNs, notably Asia Pacific MUN, where he chaired the council of ICJ. When he is not competing in any MUN or reading international news, you will find him playing video games, watching youtube conspiracy videos or even relaxing watching Netflix in his spare time. Therefore, he can’t wait for all delegates in this council to propose new exciting, innovative, comprehensive solutions, and a substantive debate.